Few occupations allowed one so easily to look down on men.
“Aeronaut” from the Occupations of Women trading card series by the Old Judge and Dog’s Head Cigarette Company (1887)
In 1850 Dr. George Merryweather designed a “Patent Tempest Prognosticator” that used leeches to predict approaching storms. The device, which was lovely to look at, housed individual leeches in a dozen glass bottles partly filled with rainwater. It had long been observed that when the barometric pressure drops, as with the approach of a storm, leeches tend to get excited. The genius of Merryweather’s invention was to harness the muscle-power and barometric consensus of numbers of leeches together so that when the pressure dropped and they all began to skip and frolic in their glass bottles the combined activity would trigger the ringing of a bell. “Leechdom hath prophesied,” the bell said, “now fetch an umbrella.”
I bought a new umbrella this past Monday, a black collapsible one that cost me ten dollars and which in six months or so will give out in a stiff wind or permanently misplace itself. But it was a timely purchase. The local leeches are no doubt cavorting enthusiastically just now. It’s a real event here in northern California when the rain finally comes. It arrives about November or December and continues, sporadically, into May, after which there is no rain to speak of until November comes round again. One can only assume that the merciless summery interlude is a cheerless drudge for the leeches.
I owe my acquaintance with Dr Merryweather’s leech barometer to Richard Holmes and his new book Falling Upwards, which I recently finished. Not that the book has much to say about leeches. It’s concerned instead with the history of manned ballooning from the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 to the Wright brothers in 1903. In his excellent earlier book, The Age of Wonder, Holmes briefly skimmed the subject while exploring the relationship between Romanticism and the second, post-Newtonian scientific revolution. In the present title, he unloads all his ballast and soars into the ether on the subject. It’s a terrific pleasure to read.
If you’ll forgive me, it seems that balloons are in the air these days. Julian Barnes’ new memoir, Levels of Life, also has something to do with the history of manned ballooning. I’m currently reading Rose Macaulay’s The Minor Pleasures of Life, a sort of commonplace book of thematically arranged quotations, which includes under the category of “Celestial” several passages about ballooning. The little chapter book I recently wrote for my daughter also involves two cats making an adventurous balloon trip. (My daughter herself, we recently discovered, has a substantial “dead balloon collection” made of up deflated helium balloons from various birthday parties and other events.)
Speaking of cats, according to a pamphlet from 1784 quoted in Macaulay’s Minor Pleasures, the aeronaut Vincenzo Lunardi, on tour in England, “was accompanied in his aerial passage by a couple of pigeons, a cat, and a favourite lap-dog.” Over Northaw, at an undisclosed altitude, “he threw out his cat… which was taken up alive.” The Montgolfiers also used animals in their early test-flights. They preferred sheep to cats, though it’s worth noting that in the 1960s the French space program did send a cat named Félicette up in a rocket. American balloonist John Wise liked to drop cats in little parachutes from his basket. This throwing of cats from airships is not something my daughter would approve of but she might like the image of them descending in colorful parachutes.
It’s difficult to imagine the shock people must have felt in those early days when the first aeronauts climbed into baskets suspended from gas bubbles and flew off into the clouds. It must have been doubly shocking to see them unexpectedly descend in a sky chariot like angels or visitors from the moon. Jean Pierre Blanchard, describing his third flight in 1784, said that when coming in to land he and his companion were met by a group of astonished French field laborers. “The most courageous contemplated us and exclaimed: ‘Are you Men, or Gods? What are you? Make yourselves known!'” To prove their humanity Blanchard and his friend removed their coats and threw them down. “They seized on them eagerly,” Blanchard says, “and began to divide them in pieces,” like holy relics.
It is a question whether the Cockatrice dye by the sight of himself: some have affirmed so much, but I dare not ascribe thereunto… I cannot without laughing remember the old Wives tales of the Vulgar Cockatrices that have been in England, for I have oftentimes heard it related confidently, that once our Nation was full of Cockatrices, and that a certain man did destroy them by going up and down in Glasse, whereby their own shapes were reflected upon their own faces, and so they dye.
~ Edward Topsell, History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents (1607)
We pedestrians no longer look each other in the face when we pass, fearing perhaps that some of our number are secret cockatrices. It would make a nice experiment to cover myself in mirrors and walk back and forth through downtown one day. The service rendered my fellow citizens would be measured in the combined weight of the corpses left here and there on the sidewalk.
[The future popularization of air travel] will bring the immediate, absolute, instantaneous, universal and perpetual abolition of all frontiers, everywhere… The old Gordian knot of gravity will finally be untied… Armies will vanish, and with them the horrors of war, the exploitation of nations, the subjugations of populations. It will bring an immense and totally peaceful revolution. It will bring a sudden golden dawn, a brisk flinging open of the ancient cage door of history, a flooding in of light. It will mean the liberation of all mankind.
~ Victor Hugo, Letter on Flight
The enthusiasm and naiveté are breathtaking, symptoms of a viral techno-messianism we contracted during the Enlightenment, I suppose. But the millennium did not arrive on the wings of the aeroplane. Nor did it arrive with the telephone, penicillin, the nuclear bomb, space travel, the Internet, the decoding of the human genome or the Segway scooter. The real trouble with being human has nothing to do with lack of physical and mental enhancements. The real trouble is that while the kingdom of heaven may be within you, so is that portable hell, the human heart.